# Perl's undefined behaviors

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A list of documented undefined behaviors in Perl. There’s one that matters to you, and others that are rare cases.

The each function iterates through a hash (or an array). If you mess with the underlying hash, including adding or deleting a hash key, Perl may rearrange the data structure. When that rearrangement happens, each may be in the same “place”, but the rearranged hash may allow it to return the same key and value again as well as skipping keys and values it hasn’t seen. There’s one exception: if you delete the most recently returned key, it all works out.

If you give truncate a length that is larger than the file size, who knows what will happen? Maybe it truncates some other nearby file or starts a Tetris easter egg.

sort in scalar context doesn’t know what to do, but why would you want to do that anyway? One idea is to make it a no-op so it does nothing, which seems reasonable. But people have other ideas too. GitHub , Perl5 Porters

# Old undefined behaviors

Prior to v5.30, you could have a postfix conditional on the lexical definition of a variable: my \$foo = 0 if 0. This had the unintended effect of making a persistent lexical variable, which Perl did not have prior to v5.10 with state. Perl v5.30 removed this misfeature.